Saturday, December 16, 2006

au revoir from skyharbor..


 The grades have been posted and you should be able to see them.

The homework 4 is available for pickup from the TA. The final exam has to be kept with me according to university rules.

It was fun teaching you all this semester and I hope to see you around and may be even in other courses.


Friday, December 15, 2006

AI homework 4 and project make up

Hi, folks.

If you need to pick up your hardcopy of homework 4 and project make up,
you can stop by my office (BYENG561AC) on Monday and Tuesday
(Dec.18th/19th). I should be around most of the time.

The instructor keeps the copies of final. You need to check with him if
you want to see the final.

Have a good holiday!!

Thursday, December 14, 2006

Hold--I say--*hold*--the presses (egregious error in the previous cumulatives)...

So it has just been pointed out to me by the ever-watchful TA that I took the midterm grade twice instead of
midterm and final--in computing the exam total and thereby the cumulative. My apologies.

Here I believe are the *real* cumulatives. Also, this does change the "top" person in one of the sections.  They now can
proffer their advice to me about where the grade cutoffs should be... (and my apologies to the person who
had the "Dewey Wins" dejavu--I think he/she did a great job in the class over all).


ps: By the way, if you were tormented with too much work, just think of the poor TA who had to grade everything you guys did
       (and continued to look out for your interests even in the eleventh hour). Lei more than continues the tradition of
      outstanding TAs for cse471..


Final cumulative ranking (required marks)

Here is the final cumulative ranking according to my Excel (I will have it checked by the TA once but it sort of looks correct).

I will let you in on an early secret.  The very top student in both sections (471 and 598) are guaranteed to get an A+ (although
they both should be chastised for not doing well on the final).

I am willing to hear (hear--not necessarily follow) from them about where the grade cutoffs should be in their sections 
for A+, A, A-, B+, B, B-, C+, C,  D and E. 


ps: Mails requesting a favorable consideration of your own case will likely result in me thinking unfavorably of you. So, don't do it ;-)


Final exam marks..

Final has been graded. Before witnessing the bloodbath, let us
pause--in the true Bhagavadgita fashion--
and take stock of the big answers ;-)

Here are some general observations:

1. Many people messed up the bomb in the toilet problem.
Here is one complete answer.

1. B(p1,S0) V B(p2,S0)
2. forall s, p B(p,s) => sf(Result(d(p),s))
3. ?sf(s)

1 is already in the clausal form. 2 becomes ~B(p,s) V sf(Result(d(p),s))
3, after negation becomes forall s ~sf(s) which in clausal form is ~sf(s)

You can resolve 3 with 2, and then resolve ~B(p,s) twice with 1 to
get an empty clause

The proof doesn;t give you a plan as it is existential proof.

Backward chaining won't work because the first clause is non-horn!

2. for part two of the flu epidemic question, many people missed the point that
the CPTs already take care of the ignorance and lazyness..

3. The likelihood of Flu in the enumeration question works out to be
about ~0.733

4. In the likelihood weighting question, you ignore the last few
samples since you
have to clamp RN and BA to "False"

5. The answer to how likely is flu on the first day given the
evidence of the kit on the second
day turns out to be ~0.824 [You guys could have used the project 3
applet to check your answers
before submitting ;-)]

6. for the third part of the DBN question, the best way to argue with
your friend is to
point out that belief revision can happen in diagnostic as well as
causal direction.

7. For the Neuman's party, the size of the hypothesis space is
2^(2^3)=256 (where
3 is the number of features of the problem)

8. For the same question, some people used their commonsense rather
than calculations

9. The answers to deep thoughts section made for interesting reading.
Seemed like some people really did
get something out of the course--and that is as apt a gift for the
winter solstice as any..


(*) Bhagavadgita is considered the Cliff's notes essence of Hindu
philosophy--and it is
a discourse on good and bad between Krishna and Arjuna--two
characters in the Indian
epic Mahabharata--at the outset of the big war--with two opposing
armies pitched and ready to
go at each other. Imagine, if you will, a philosophical discussion
between G.W. and Saddam in the deserts
of arabia, with the republican guard and marines ready to go at each
other once they stop talking..

Wednesday, December 13, 2006

Hw4 grading details

Below are the statistics of hw4:
HW4 Without Extra Credits(139)

Mean Median Highest
Overall 95.4 106 136
Under 77.4 76
Graduate 109 117

For this homework, as you can see, the full score is very big: 139 + 12(for extra credit)
Note that the weight I finally adopt for grading is a little different as shown in the solution.

P1(30): 3+4+5+6+3++ 3+ 6
P2(15): 3+3+3+3+3
P3(24): 3+3+3+3+6+6
P4(15): 3+3+3+3+3
P5(15): 6+3+3+3
P6(6): 3+3
P7(30): 3+6+3+3+3+3+4+5

Thus, the total is 30+15+24+15+15+6+30+4 = 139.

One common error:
P1, part C to compare p1, p2, and p3.
Lots of students provide p1<=p3 or p3<=p1. Actually, unless you know the exact CPT, both cases are possible. I took 2 pts off for this unless you provide solid justification.

Sunday, December 10, 2006

Re: Final Exam

You don't need this information. For perceptrons, it is customary to assume that the learning rate alpha
already contains the gradient information (i.e., just use alpha in place of alpha*gradient_of_activation_fn)


On 12/10/06, Nanan <> wrote:
Dear Dr. Kambhampati,
Would you please tell me the activation function of the Neuman's Parties question? Thanks :)

Re: Clarification needed on DBN question

In this part of the question you calculate the probability that the patient has
flu on the *second* day given that the test on the *second* day came positive.

(In the next part, you have an argument with your friend about the flu probability
on the first day).


On 12/10/06, Srinath Reddy Bodala <> wrote:
Dear Prof,

I need clarification regarding a question on DBN. I am reproducing the
question here for your convenience.


Given your representation above, after one days' stay in the hospital
the patient is tested and the test came positive. (1) What is the
probability that the patient actually has flu? Show your calculation.

I have doubt regarding whether I have to calculate probability of
patient having flu on the first day or second day.

Hope I am clear.

Srinath Reddy B.

Saturday, December 09, 2006

Correction to the last question on page 5

There is an error in the specification of the last question for page 5.

Here is the correct version (I also changed the online version). (Thanks to Mandar
for pointing it out).


[3] Suppose we decide to do inference by sampling techniques—specifically  
likelihood weighting. Suppose we are trying to compute probability
that Rhino Virus is true given that the patient has no fever and no body aches.
Suppose we generate a sample from the network using likelihood weighting.
Assume we sample the network in the order of Rhino Virus, Dyspotensia, Flu,
Runny Nose, Body Aches and Fever.
Suppose our samples return True, False, False, True, True, False
(take only the samples you need). What is the complete sample and what is its weight?

flu vs. flue

yes-- flu is the correct short speling of influenza (for some wierd reason
I tend to misspell it as flue).


On 12/9/06, Yunsong Meng <> wrote:
Hi profrssor Rao,
  In the part C of Arizona Flu Epidemic, when you say "flu", do you mean "flue" in the question?

Research Assistant
Department of Computer Science and Engineering
School of Computing & Informatics
Arizona State University

Interesting story..

This is *not* a subliminal suggestion ;-)


final exam

Some people asked me if I intend to add any more questions to the final exam.
At this point, the probability is vanishingly small.

I will of course send any clarifications or bugs others unearthed.

Remember that the exam is due on Tuesday 5pm unless you have been
explicitly granted an extension.

good luck

Friday, December 08, 2006

(oops trying again) Re: The missing figure in the seinfeld problem in homework 4 solutions

Trying again...


On 12/8/06, Subbarao Kambhampati <> wrote:
Here is the missing figure on how to represent George's party as a neural net


The missing figure in the seinfeld problem in homework 4 solutions

Here is the missing figure on how to represent George's party as a neural net


Thursday, December 07, 2006

Final exam--beta preview..

I decided to release the final now so you can start mulling over it.

you can get it from

I may add a few more questions if I realize tomorrow that some aspects
have not been covered adequately.

I am also willing to hear comments--until tomorrow morning--on the fairness
of the distribution of marks on the test ( e.g. is it PAC..)

If I make any changes, I will of course let you know.

Good luck


Status on final exam...


 This is just a heads-up on the status of the final exam. I am running behind schedule in setting it--I have about half of it ready, but  may have to do an all-nighter to complete it
and release it to you by tomorrow morning. (In the worst case, if I don't have it all ready, I will have to release what I do have in a "socket" fashion--I am trying to avoid that)

I am also aware of the fact that some of the figures in the homework are not showing. Unfortunately those figs seem to have disappeared. I will try to
redraw them and send them to you

thanks for your patience.


Homework 4 solutions posted

The homework 4 solutions are posted.


Some additional comments

Here are some more of the interactive review comments that were emailed that I am redirecting to the blog... (three other comments were directly
added to the blog and can be found at )

Eventually, with Lei's help, we hope to post a summary description as acquired wisdom.


Srinath Reddy Bodala 
to Subbarao
show details
 Dec 5 (2 days ago) 
Dear Prof,
Going straight into the topics I liked the most, I enjoyed adversial search, alpha-beta pruning. I also enjoyed doing the project on building tic-tac-toe program. But there were too many no result games so it was a bit boring there, so may be we should have used more interesting game for the project. I also liked learning various types of logic, working on pattern databases heuristic.
Srinath ReddyB. 


Al Welle 
to Subbarao, Lei
show details
 9:20 am (40 minutes ago) 
I found there were many things about AI that I had been mis-informed about before taking the class. Primarily about the usefulness of Neural Networks. I was greatly surprised to see how much better, more efficient and flexible, SVM was compared with Neural Networks.
I think I learned a great deal, but I think I either missed or could have learned more by a large factor. I believe that to fully do justice to the material there should be a 3 course sequence for Artificial Intelligence.
I was surprised at how little detail we went into regarding the math behind some of the equations. The basic understanding of what the equations do is fairly simple, but the math behind it seems to get exponentially complex for every level of depth you dive into it. (Which is probably why we use a computer to do the math, huh?)
I gained some insight into PAC and Bias and how they relate to both my own introspective thought process (I had always thought I kept an open mind and considered alternative theories equally until I had sufficient evidence but now, after having forced myself to actually observe my own thoughts with an eye to bias / logical-leaps I find I make these mistakes much more often than I would originally have believed)
I've never loved a class as much while hating it so throughly. The material is fascinating and that's at the level of "just barely indicitive of how useful this could be" but at the same time it's maddening for me to not almost instantly grasp concepts and implementations. I'm not used to having to THINK about a problem for a long time. Even worse I often found myself not being able to fully comprehend something and having to accept that I wasn't going to master the material in a week, or two, or even over the whole course, but would have to keep burning "mental clock cycles" on problems long after the semester ends.
For instance in planning I think I have a good idea of "regression planning" and "mutexes" and when graphs level off. But when actually having to explain it I'm reduced to "proof by inspection." .. That is "um, can't you just see that's the answer, cause I'm really not able to draw you a graph in two-dimensions black-and-white with a pencil." 
In short "the toughest class you'll ever love to hate" best describes my aqquired wisdom for the course.
Apologies for the length,


office hours today..

I will hold office hours at 3pm as announced.
Additionally, I should be in my office most of the day--if you
have questions drop by.


Tuesday, December 05, 2006

Re: For those people who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance..

One correction: is not my email address.

Please send to


Subbarao Kambhampati wrote:
If logging onto the class blog acts as an additional disincentive, just send your
input to me and lei (, -- use the same subject as this mail)


On 12/5/06, Subbarao Kambhampati <> wrote:
 Those of you who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance because
we ran out of time--please add your comments to the blog--preferaby as a response to this mail.

We will then collect those in making the acquired wisdom page for this year (it seems odd to have
acquired wisdom of only half the clas...)


On the "berkeley" comment at the end of the class..

My comment comparing 471 to the berkeley intro to AI may have come across a bit more jarring than I intended.

Looking beyond the bluster, I think I do have something serious to say here, so let me try once more.

My philosophy is that *what* is taught in a course shouldn't depend on *where* it is taught. The demands and
coverage of the course should not be diluted based on anyone's reduced expectations of a student population
(since this is a vicious slippery slope and is ultimately detrimental to the students themselves). 

Your grade may well depend on who else took the course with you, but the material and demands should not.

I should also make it clear that there was no real deluge of students requesting me to reduce the demands or coverage.
In all the semester, I probably heard about one and a half comments of this vein. Most others seemed to take it in stride;
and I respect that immensely.


Re: For those people who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance..

If logging onto the class blog acts as an additional disincentive, just send your
input to me and lei (, -- use the same subject as this mail)


On 12/5/06, Subbarao Kambhampati <> wrote:
 Those of you who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance because
we ran out of time--please add your comments to the blog--preferaby as a response to this mail.

We will then collect those in making the acquired wisdom page for this year (it seems odd to have
acquired wisdom of only half the clas...)


Attendance statistics...

Here are the self-reported attendance statistics, for your edification:

17  had perfect attendance (18 if you include me ;-)
4 missed 1 class
6 missed 2 classes
3 missed 3 classes
1 missed 4 classes
1 missed 7 classes

This gives a mean absence rate of 1.125 classes/person

[Of course, I only had 32 responses and the roster says I have 37 students.
So either five of you apparently either didnt show up today or  were in class but forgot to
turn in the following information. Either way, please do, or I will assume you missed all classes ;-)]


CSE 471/598 Attendance/Participation Sheet






Total number of classes missed:_______________________



                  The number missed with prior notification:___________________



Number of times you asked a question in the class (circle one):


    Never        Maybe once or twice          5-10 times        >10 times


(Please give your best estimate)

For those people who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance..

 Those of you who wanted to take part in the interactive review but didn't get a chance because
we ran out of time--please add your comments to the blog--preferaby as a response to this mail.

We will then collect those in making the acquired wisdom page for this year (it seems odd to have
acquired wisdom of only half the clas...)


Monday, December 04, 2006

Reminder: Interactive Review tomorrow..


 Just a reminder that there will be an interactive review tomorrow. You will be asked to say a couple of words
(1-2min max) about the topics/ideas that you particularly enjoyed or got bored stiff.

(If you are completely bereft of ideas, you may look at
for what Fall 2003 folks said. Don't copy their opinions though ;-)

Also, please note that this is session is *not* meant for expressing your opinions on the quality of instruction/instructor.
You have the CEAS evaluations for that.

see you all tomorrow bright, chirpy and enlightened..


One last extension: Homework 4 will be accepted until Wednesday 4:30pm

I have been getting a huge number of questions on homework 4 today which makes me think
that people have only started working on it seriously today.

Since the homework covers a lot of topics I really would like for you guys to try and do some justice
to them. (That and I would hate to see people falling asleep in the last class after staying up all night today.)

So, I am going to allow people to submit homework 4 until wednesday 4:30pm.

Note of course  that  you can still submit it tomorrow and be done with it...


clarification on b and d of qn 3 (the robot question).

Several people asked for clarification as to how b and d differ.

The idea is that in "b" you only consider the question from a pure graph-theoretic
perspective (e.g., purely in terms of directroute(x,y)). Here, we don't need to consider
situation calculus at all.

In "d" you are thinking in terms of actions and effects and specific plans (so you need to consider situation calculs).

Hope this helps. (People who are still confused might want to skip b and do the rest..)


=====the problem from homework
In this exercise, we will consider the problem of planning a route for

a robot to take from one city to another. The basic action taken by
the robot is Go(x,y) which takes it from city x to city y if there is
a direct route between the cities. DirectRoute(x,y) is true if and
only if there is a direct route from x to y; you can assume that all

such facts are already in the KB (see the map on page 63 of the text
book). The robot is in Arad and must reach Fagaras.

a. Write a suitable logical description of the initial situation of
the robot

b. Write a logical query whose solutions will provide possible paths
to the goal

c. Write a sentence describing the Go action

d. Write a suitable query whose answer can provide the plan for the
robot to go from Arad to Fagaras.

e. Use resolution refutation to answer the query and output the plan.

f. Suppose the Robot was wearing a redshirt and green pants when it
was in Arad. We want it to be wearing the same dress when it reaches

Fagaras. Explain how your answers to the parts a-e change.

Fwd: Homework 4 Weight

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From: Subbarao Kambhampati <>
Date: Dec 4, 2006 4:14 PM
Subject: Re: Homework 4 Weight
To: Kartik Talamadupula <>

Homework 4 will have more weight than normal homeworks. (it covers a large number of topics)

I would say something closer to 10%+. (Also note that there is a *required* part in homework--as part of the learning question).


On 12/4/06, Kartik Talamadupula <> wrote:
Dr Rao,
Can you please tell me how much homework 4 will be worth in terms of percentage of the total grade? I know you don't like giving out numbers, but this would genuinely help.
Am I right in assuming that it would have to be lesser than or equal to about 5%, since you said there is 25% remaining credit to be earned and I am estimating the final should be at least 20%, given how much the midterm was worth.

Current cumulatives (with Project 3 and Project 4 marks thrown in--75% of the grade accounted for)

 Here--FYI--is the current cumulatives. I included the project 3 (at 7%) and project 4 (at 12%). The 5 projects thus come to 1+10+10+7+12=40pts.
Project 4 will be returned tomorrow.

Let me or the TA know if there are any discrepancies in the entered grades.



Saturday, December 02, 2006

Homework 4 socket closed.. with two extra credit problems..

 I added an additional part to the Seinfeld party problem (part I)--which is about naive bayes classifiers.

I also added the long promised dyanamic bayes net problem.

Both of these are made "extra-credit" and optional.

No more changes will be made to the homework. It will be due in class on Tuesday.